Parathyroid is a gland that produces parathyroid hormone in the neck immediately adjacent to the thyroid gland. Parathyroid glands are responsible for controlling the amount of calcium and phosphorus in our blood and bones.
Calcium is not only a mineral for our skeletal system, but also has a very important function in the function of our muscles and nervous systems. Although both parathyroid and thyroid glands are integral parts of the endocrine system, the parathyroid glands have a completely unique function in the body .
Bones act as a storage area for calcium mineral in the body. When parathyroid hormone is secreted, calcium is released from the bones. When this hormone is not secreted, calcium is continued to be stored in the bones. Parathyroid also activates vitamin D in the gastrointestinal tract, enhancing the absorption of calcium and reabsorbing calcium by the kidneys.
What are the functions of parathyroid in our body?
To provide calcium from the bones to the bloodstream
Food absorption from intestines
Helping to keep calcium in the kidneys
What are parathyroid diseases?
What is Hyperparathyroidism? (Parathyroid Adenoma)
Hyperparathyroidism is the name given to the parathyroid gland overwork. It is also known as parathyroid adenoma. Parathyroid glands, which run above normal, produce too much parathyroid hormone, leading to an increase in the level of calcium in the bloodstream.
Parathyroid hormone, which uses bones to increase blood calcium levels, causes erosion of the bones with excessive calcium secretion. The effect of hyperparathyroidism increases the amount of calcium excreted by the kidneys. As a result, the formation of kidney stones is facilitated.
Causes of hyperparathyroidism
Benign tumors of the parathyroid glands (adenoma)
Parathyroid gland growth due to various reasons
Cancer (malignant tumors in one or more of the parathyroid glands)
Expansion of two or more parathyroid glands
Symptoms of hyperparathyroidism
Easy break in bones
Rheumatism-like joint pain and muscle cramps
Emotional disorder (depression)
Blur of Consciousness
Unspecified high blood pressure
Quick and easy fatigue, weakness
Bone and joint pain
Diagnosis and treatment of hyperparathyroidism
Hyperparathyroidism, bone x-ray, bone densitometry, blood calcium and parathyroid hormone levels measurements, daily urine calcium excretion, neck ultrasound and parathyroid scintigraphy are diagnosed. Hyperparathyroidism treatment is carried out by the internal medicine doctor. Your doctor will determine the cause of this condition and apply the necessary treatment. Surgery is also an alternative treatment option.
What is hypoparathyroidism?
Hypoparathyroidism occurs when parathyroid glands are under-run or damaged. In this case, the production of parathyroid hormone in the bloodstream decreases and the blood calcium levels decrease.
Symptoms of hypoparathyroidism
Tingling or burning sensation at the fingertips, fingers, lips
Muscle pains or cramps affecting your legs, feet, abdomen or face
Easy breaking of nails
Diagnosis and treatment of hypoparathyroidism
In addition to physical examination, blood calcium, phosphorus and parathyroid hormone levels are measured. What is essential in the treatment of hypoparathyroidism is to replace the missing calcium in the blood. This can be done by medication or needle.