The formation of abnormal cells in organs or tissues is defined as dysplasia. In other words, it refers to the overgrowth of cells. Most of the time, the term dysplasia does not mean cancer. But sometimes it can turn into cancer. It is detected by examining the samples taken with biopsy under a microscope. Even if it is not cancer, it can trigger the development of cancer.
What Does Dysplasia Mean?
It is the presence of abnormal cells in tissues. It may indicate that the patient is in a pre-cancerous stage or that cancer has occurred. The presence of dysplasia cells is not a sufficient reason for a cancer diagnosis. However, individuals with this condition are more likely to get cancer than people who do not have such a problem.
When dysplasia is seen in the tissue sample, it is often described as “high grade”, “low grade” or “indeterminate (or indeterminate) for dysplasia.”
In the case of high grade dysplasia, most of the cells have undergone abnormal changes. It is observed that the cells grow excessively. In low-grade dysplasia, tissue examination again informs abnormal changes. However, only a certain part of the cells were affected by these changes. Moreover, there is no differentiation in the growth pattern of the cells. Means ambiguous for dysplasia; Whether the tissue changes are due to dysplasia could not be confirmed by the pathologist.
In order to clarify the diagnosis of dysplasia in biopsy, it is recommended that two pathologists perform an evaluation.
No definitive judgment has been made on the causes of dysplasia. Types such as ectodermal and skeletal dysplasia are due to mutations that occur in the DNA of a developmental embryo. However, it is not known what caused the mutations. It is thought that there is a relationship between dysplasia in adults and nutrition. However, this is not a fact proven by scientific studies.
What are the Types of Dysplasia?
Cervical dysplasia: It refers to abnormal cells formed on the surface of the cervix. Low-grade cervical dysplasia does not spread rapidly and is not aggressive. Most of the time it resolves spontaneously. High-grade cervical dysplasia can result in cervical cancer if left untreated. Usually it does not show any symptoms. It may also show symptoms as genital warts.
Hip dysplasia: It can occur at birth or in later stages of life. Since the bones that make up the hip joint are not properly aligned, the joint cannot function properly. The fraying process gets faster. Hip pain is the most common symptom of hip dysplasia. Groin pain that lasts for months and a crackling sound from the hip area when moving are other possible complaints.
In some people, the body can no longer produce enough of healthy blood cells. This condition is called myelodysplastic syndrome. Chemotherapy and radiation intake can cause this.
Ectodermal dysplasia: It is also known as ED in short. It affects the joints, nails, hair, sebaceous glands and skin. It is congenital, hereditary and rarely seen. It causes symptoms such as split lips, thin sparse hair and wide forehead.
Skeletal dysplasia: This genetic disorder affecting joints and bones prevents growth and development in children.
How Is Dysplasia Treated?
Diagnosis and treatment depends on the type of dysplasia. Dysplasia treatment is mostly applied to alleviate the complaints, not to provide complete recovery.