Coronavirus or corona virus sat on the agenda in Turkey as well as all over the world. Information pollution on the internet and social media causes people to get confused. You can find what you wonder about Coronavirus in this content, which is especially prepared in the light of verified data from the World Health Organization.
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In December 2019, pneumonia cases began to appear in China, the cause of which could not be suddenly explained. Research has revealed that these cases of pneumonia are a new type of coronavirus (coronavirus) that has not been previously described. This form of the virus was called Coronavirus 2019, COVID-19, since it appeared in 2019. Coronavirus is actually a virus that is abundant in animals. The source of the virus that caused the disease recently is thought to be the Huanan seafood market in Wuhan, China. It was understood in time that the virus, which is transmitted from animal to human, can spread from person to person.
Coronaviruses are, in fact, a large group of viruses of different types, although it comes with the recent outbreak. It carries RNA as genetic material, and is the group of viruses with the largest genome among viruses carrying RNA. Coronavirus is an enveloped virus and has spike-shaped protrusions around its envelope. This structure gives it an image in royal crown when viewed under an electron microscope. For this reason, the virus was named Corona, which means Latin royal crown.
Different types of coronaviruses cause different ailments. For example, some coronaviruses cause digestive system (gastrointestinal) disorders, while others bring complaints about the respiratory system. Coronaviruses that cause respiratory disorders also differ among themselves. In some infections, only mild symptoms such as cold, while pneumonia results in some people. However, coronaviruses generally show mild symptoms, with the exception of the three examples in history. The first example is the SARS coronavirus, which is an abbreviation of the English words ‘Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome – Serious Acute Respiratory Syndrome’ observed in China in 2003. In 2012, this time ‘Middle East Respiratory Syndrome – Middle East Respiratory Syndrome’ in Saudi Arabia The so-called MERS coronavirus has emerged. Finally, the 2019 n-CoV (2019 Novel Coronavirus, 2019 New Coronavirus), which is now rapidly spreading around the world, has emerged. All these exemplified coronaviruses cause serious symptoms and may even result in death.
The transfer of coronaviruses from animal to human is also not observed for the first time. SARS disease is thought to be transmitted to human from Musk (Civet) cat, a cat species living in Asia. MERS, on the other hand, is very common in the Middle East and spread to people who are in close contact with people. There is a widespread belief that the 2019 coronavirus is transmitted to humans by consuming bats from the animal market or by consuming an exotic animal called pangolin. However, this information has not yet been verified by the World Health Organization.
Although the molecular mechanism of coronavirus’s exact pathway from human to human transmission has not been resolved at this time, the general transmission principle of respiratory diseases is similar. Respiratory diseases are spread by droplet scattering. In this type of spreading, when a sick person coughs or sneezes, the people around him are exposed to this microbe. Another way of transmission is by using an object that is contaminated with droplets.
According to the World Health Organization, those dealing with live animals (especially in the Far East region) are those at greatest risk. In addition, family members and healthcare professionals who are in close contact with sick people are also in the coronavirus risk group. In terms of mortality rates, the group over 65 is at higher risk.
Based on the information so far known about coronavirus , symptoms can be moderate or severe. The most common symptoms are; fever, cough, and difficulty breathing. Runny nose has not been reported in coronavirus. Therefore, it is very important to stay away from crowded places and contact the health institution as soon as possible when cough and breathing difficulties and fever are observed without a runny nose. In severe coronavirus cases, pneumonia, kidney failure and death occur.
According to the World Health Organization, it is not possible to tell the mortality rate of the virus according to the current information. However, an article published on February 24, 2020 provides a mortality rate in China (confirmed by test) cases as of February 11. According to this article, 44672 cases of 72314 cases in China were confirmed as of February 11. The overall case death rate was found to be 2.3% in these patients (1023 deaths in 44672 approved cases). When examined by age, the mortality rate rises to 8% in cases between the ages of 70-79. Looking at these rates, it is possible to say that the elderly population is at the highest risk.
Coronavirus is diagnosed by a test called PCR (polymerized chain reaction). With this test, only the genetic material in the virus can be reproduced to make a definitive diagnosis.
Antibiotics are useless because coronavirus is not a bacterium. Currently, there is no treatment specific to coronavirus. The main treatment is symptomatic therapy. Coronavirus therapy and coronavirus vaccine development studies are ongoing. Like any virus, keeping the immune system strong (good quality sleep, balanced nutrition, and physical activity) is important in coronavirus.
The most basic measure to reduce the spread of coronavirus or to prevent infection is to follow basic hygiene rules. The most important of these is washing hands. Enveloped viruses are not resistant to washing with soap and disinfecting with alcohol. Therefore, the spread of this virus will be slower in societies that have a habit of washing hands and pay attention to general hygiene rules.
Apart from this, the things to be done can be listed as follows:
- People with suspected disease should not be approached, unnecessary contact should not be made.
- When sneezing or coughing, the mouth should definitely be closed inside the arm or a handkerchief should be used.
- Medical Park Bahçelievler Infectious Diseases and Microbiology Specialist Dr. Dilek Arman; It states that people in the risk group should get a pneumonia vaccine. Vaccine is an important measure, despite the possibility of pneumonia with secondary infections, especially after viruses that affect these lower respiratory tract.
- When you need to travel, it is important to investigate the extent of coronavirus outbreaks of the country you are visiting from sources such as CDC or WHO.
The World Health Organization reports that those who do not feel well should avoid crowded places, and those who have coughs, fever and respiratory distress should seek medical help as soon as possible. When you apply to health institutions with such complaints, especially the correct transfer of your travel history is important both for preventing the spread of the virus and for diagnosis.